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F. Crocodile Bardi

[15 points]

Bardi is part of the Nyulnyulan language family and is the traditional language of the Bardi people, who live in and around One Arm Point and the Lombadina/Djarrindjin Aboriginal Communities, along the coast of Australia’s Kimberley Region. Although about a thousand people identify as Bardi, only a handful of people can be considered fluent speakers of the Bardi language.

F-1 In the diagram of the scene (below), note that both you and the speaker are facing the paper. The bird is to the left of everything else and the kangaroo is to the right of everything else. The cat is behind everything else and the kangaroo is in front of everything else.

Here are some Bardi sentences describing the diagram:

  • Aamba bornkony yaawardon.
  • Baawa joorroonggony garrabalgoon.
  • Boorroo alaboor yaawardon.
  • Iila alaboor ooranygoon.
  • Iila baybirrony aambon.
  • Minyaw baybirrony baawon.
  • Oorany joorroonggony baawon.
  • Yaawarda bornkony aambon.

Using the sentences on above, fill in the chart below by dragging words from the “Bardi Word Bank.” Each Bardi word should be used exactly once.

Bardi Word Bank
1. Aarlgoodony
2. Aamba
3. Alaboor
4. Baybirrony
5. Boorroo
6. Bornkony
7. Lila
8. Joorroonggony
9. Minyaw
10. Oorany
11. Yaawarda
Garrabal = “bird”
Baawa = “child”
English Word Bardi Word
Next to
In front of
To the right of
To the left of

F-2 Here is a diagram of a different scene, with a compass rose added:

Here are some sentences about this scene:

  • Aamba ardi inin boorroogo.
  • Aamba baana inin oorany.
  • Baawa aalgamadan inin yaawardago.
  • Baawa alang inin aambago.
  • Garrabal goolarr inin aambago.
  • Garrabal goolarr inin baawago.
  • Iila ardi inin yaawarda.
  • Iila ardingarr.
  • Minyaw baana inin ooranygo.

Using these sentences and what you learned from F-1, fill in the boxes below with the English symbols E, N, NE, NW, S, SE, SW, and W (the eight main cardinal directions). This time, each symbol may be used more than once, exactly once, or not at all. For example, in the first blank box, you could enter “E or S” or just “N”. Make sure to use the word “or” if there is more than one direction per box.

Bardi Word English Direction(s)

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Number correct: -1
Score: -1

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